Welcome To Vaccine Awareness Network
Updated 1 September 2014
 
 
Vaccines And How They Are Made
The chemicals that go into vaccination, includes info on expanded vaccine schedule - newly updated 1 August 2014
 
 
Your Immune System, How It Works And How Vaccines Damage It
Vaccines and Immune Dysfunction - updated 22 March 2014
 
 
The Herd Immunity Theory - Treating Our Children Like Cattle
The Herd Immunity Theory - updated 28 February 2013
 
 
Did Vaccines Really Halt Killer Diseases?
Did Vaccines Really Stop Diseases? A look at history - updated 10 April 2010 with modern day victim of smallpox vaccine
 
 
Vaccination And Abortion
The Use Of Foetal Tissue in Vaccines - newly updated 15 March 2012
 
 
Vaccines: A Religious Contention
Vaccines: A Religious Contention - updated 17 December 2009
 
 
Pediacel 5-in-1 Super Jab
5 in 1 vaccine - updated 26 August 2012.
 
 
Manufacturer's Information About Pediacel 5-in-1 Vaccine
 
 
Autism and Cerebral Palsy From DPT Vaccine
Maryamber's Story - and other Cerebral Palsy after Vaccination Cases, updated 13 April 2010
 
 
Gardasil and Cervarix - The Cervical Cancer Vaccines
Gardasil and Cervarix - The Cervical Cancer Vaccine - now updated 31 March 2010 - Spain Withdraws Batch Of HPV Vaccine
 
 
Gardasil Vaccines Continued
Gardasil Vaccine Continued And Cases Of Gardasil/Cervarix Damage And Death, updated 27 August 2014
 
 
Prevnar Vaccination
Prevnar and Pneumonia Vaccinations, including info on PCV 13, updated 3 February 2012
 
 
Travel Vaccines
Travel Vaccines - updated 2 July 2014
 
 
Tetanus Vaccine
Tetanus Vaccine - updated 6 May 2012
 
 
MMR, Single Vaccines And MMRV Vaccine
MMR and Single Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccines and MMRV information - updated 28 August 2014 - NEW COURT RULING SHOWING MMR CAUSED ASD! Contains Graphic Damage Photo.
 
 
Killer Measles Vaccine Is Withdrawn And Other Vaccine Death Cases
Four Babies Killed In Measles Vaccine Campaign - updated 26 August 2012 with more deaths, PAGE FULL.
 
 
Infant Vaccines Produce Autism Symptoms In Primates
Shots Cause Autism In Monkeys
 
 
If You Don't Want The MMR We'll Force You and Other Vaccination Force Stories
Bully Boy Tactics Proposed - includes case of forced vaccination with various vaccines, updated 27 March 2014
 
 
Meningitis C Vaccine
Various articles and citations - updated 30 August 2012
 
 
Hepatitis B Vaccine...aluminium....thimerosal (mercury)....yeast...but don't worry, it's gluten free!
Hep B Manufacturer's Information - updated with details of court admitted MS and Death Caused By Hep B Vaccine, updated 18 November 2012
 
 
Hepatitis B Vaccine Kills Baby and other Vaccine Death Cases
Updated 28 July 2014
 
 
Vaccine Companies Investigated For Manslaughter and other Vaccine Court Cases
And Other Vaccine Companies/Doctors On Trial For Vaccine Deaths, Injuries and Fraud - Updated 28 August 2014, now including Investigations into Swine Flu Scam
 
 
Iatrogenic Child Abuse
Iatrogenic child abuse: vaccinations and other medical abuse of children by doctors - Updated 14 April 2014
 
 
Bullying, Rude and Discriminatory Doctors who Forget Vaccines are a CHOICE
Updated 27 February 2014
 
 
My Fight For Health After Vaccination
A Vaccine Damage Case - updated 6 March 2012 to include my friend's and relatives vaccine damage cases
 
 
Vaccine Injury Photos From The CDC
WARNING! Very Graphic Vaccine Damage Pictures. Don't Look If Easily Upset - updated 27 February 2014
 
 
Vaccine Debate Page
A Place Where You Can Send Your Views On Vaccines And Health - updated 21 August 2011
 
 
Vaccination And Your Legal Rights
Your Legal Right To Own Your Own Body - updated 16 August 2009 with new information
 
 
Vaccination DESTROYS Natural Immunity!
Transplacental and Breast Milk Immunity and How they are Diminished by Vaccination - new page 10 May 2013
 
 
Disease Killing Properties Of Breast Milk
Immunising Your Baby With Breast Milk - updated 18 June 2012
 
 
Polio: The Disease, the Vaccine and the Controversies
NEW Page - updated 26 August 2012
 
 
Baby Gallery
Unvaccinated Bundles of Joy! - updated 8 May 2013
 
 
The Home Birth Pages - My Story
The Hospital Birth Experience
 
 
The Home Birth Pages
My Unassisted Childbirth - Reclaiming My Femininity - updated 17 May 2012
 
 
The Home Birth Pages - British Maternity Care (The Bullying I got When Pregnant with Yanny)
My Struggle To Have A Natural Pregnancy With The NHS - updated 5 May 2012
 
 
The Home Birth Pages - Yanny's Unhindered Home Birth
My Baby's Unhindered Home Birth - updated 6 May 2012
 
 
Home Birth And Your Legal Rights. How To Have A Natural Birth
Your Right To Birth Without Violence And Other Home Birth Issues - updated 17 May 2012
 
 
THE DANGERS OF EPISIOTOMY
And Tips For Easing Pain. Updated 6 May 2012
 
 
Obstetric Myths and Realities
Caesareans and Breech Births - updated 17 May 2010
 
 
Vaccine Information For Pregnant Women
What You Should Know If Considering A Vaccination During Pregnancy - updated 2 August 2014 - ALERT: MISCARRIAGES AND STILLBIRTHS AFTER H1N1 VACCINE!!
 
 
Home Education Photo Diary
Photo Diary of Child Friendly Home Schooling - updated 7 August 2009 - PAGE FULL, WILL ADD NEW ONE LATER.
 
 
Home Education Photo Diary
Page two of my children's home schooling - updated 10 February 2013
 
 
Home Education And Your Legal Rights
Updated 3 March 2012.
 
 
Dangers Of Formula Milk
Formula Milk Is NOT As Good As Breast Milk And Is Not A Breast Milk Substitute! Updated 14 June 2012
 
 
Vitamin K: Does Your Baby Really Need It?
Updated 6 May 2012
 
 
Mercury Free Vaccines Still Have Mercury In Them
What's Not On The Label
 
 
Pro-Vaccine Arguments
VS. Medical Evidence - updated 17 April 2014
 
 
Pro-Vaccine Arguments Page 2
VS. Medical Evidence - NEW page completed on 25th August 2012
 
 
Vaccine Shedding
The spreading of viruses and bacteria via vaccination. Includes Information on the symptoms and treatment of measles. Updated 17 May 2014
 
 
Why I Don't Vaccinate My Children
And The Birth of VAN UK - updated 11 April 2014
 
 
Six Reasons Why I Don't Vaccinate My Children
Some of the reasons I don't vaccinate, from my blog, 7th October 2012
 
 
Vaccines And Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
The Link Between Vaccines And SIDS - updated 2 July 2014
 
 
Midwives And Health Professionals Against Vaccination
Updated 28 August 2014
 
 
Media Censorship of Vaccine News
Updated 28 August 2014
 
 
BCG Vaccine
BCG vaccine information - new page 4 August 2012
 
 
Homeopathic Vaccination
Updated 7 October 2012
 
 
Boy Partially Losses Hearing After Vaccination
Updated 22nd August 2012 with more deafness and blindness after MMR cases
 
 
Delaying Vaccination Cuts Asthma Risk (and Other Allergies Related to Vaccines).
Citation in the Journal of Allergy And Clinical Immunology and Info on Vaccines and Auto-Immunity - Updated 16 May 2014
 
 
Vaccines, Mercury, Aluminium and Autism Studies
With link to http://www.mercurymadness.org. Manufacturer's Say Vaccines Cause Autism! - updated 23 August 2014
 
 
Contraindications (people who shouldn't be vaccinated) and side-effects From The Merck Manual (vaccine manufacturer)
Medical Information On Who Should Not Have Vaccines - Merck and GP Notebook - updated 6 September 2009
 
 
Flu Vaccines
Updated 22 March 2014
 
 
Swine Flu Epidemic/ H1N1 Vaccine Deaths and Injuries
Created By Lab Blunder - now recording deaths and injuries from jab - page now full.
 
 
Swine Flu Vaccine
Ingredients and other information - updated 2 July 2014
 
 
Tamiflu
What You Should Know About Tamiflu - updated 13 April 2014
 
 
More Educated Mothers Are Less Likely To Vaccinate
A New Study Shows That University Educated Mums Are More Likely To Refuse Vaccines And Other Studies Showing Educated Mothers Refusing Vaccines - updated 28 August 2014
 
 
Diseases In The Vaccinated
Medical Studies And Reports Showing Vaccines Do Not Immunise - Updated 25 April 2009
 
 
Diseases In The Vaccinated Page 2
Page Full.
 
 
Diseases in the Vaccinated - Page 3
Vaccine 'Preventable' Diseases Occuring in the Vaccinated- NEW PAGE. 28 July 2014
 
 
Seven School Kids Taken To Hospital After Vaccines and Other Vaccine Disasters
Kids sicken after DT/IPV Vaccines - and other reactions after vaccination drives, updated 21 February 2013
 
 
Infant Mortality Rates Fall Where 'Immunisation' Rates Are Low
Infant Mortality Rates Fall In Line With Lowering Vaccination Rates - updated 31 January 2013
 
 
Chickenpox: Is It Really A Killer Disease?
Suddenly this benign childhood illness has turned into a 'deadly killer' because they are introducing a vaccine - updated 31 January 2013
 
 
Selective Vaccination
If You Decide To Vaccinate - updated 30 January 2013
 
 
Vaccine Damage Payments Unit
How To Make A Claim For Compensation If Your Loved One Is Vaccine Injured - updated 1 September 2014
 
 
Legal Help For Vaccine Damage And Pro-Choice Issues
Solicitor/Lawyer Information - updated 2 June 2012
 
 
Treating Childhood Illnesses
These days, doctors and parents have lost the art of actually nursing their child through a normal childhood illness. Here we tell you the symptoms and treatment of measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, rotavirus and whooping cough - updated 15 June 2012
 
 
Childhood Diseases Can Be Good For Your Child!
Studies showing childhood diseases reduce autoimmunity - updated 21 November 2010
 
 
Stupid Medical Advice Which Has Been Consigned To History Books
Updated 12 April 2012
 
 
Double Standards - it's not okay to ingest this but fine if we inject it
Authorities Admitting Concern Over Chemicals Used In Other Products That Are Also Used In Vaccines - updated 30 January 2013
 
 
Ian's Life
A page dedicated to a little boy who died of an adverse reaction to Hepatitis B vaccine. WARNING: graphic vaccine damage picture
 
 
Animal Vaccines
The Dangers of Animal Vaccines and naturally rearing animals - updated 16 May 2014
 
 
Remember My Name
Honouring Those Who Have Died From Vaccination - updated 15 April 2012
 
 
Remember My Name - Page 2
Honouring Those Who Have Died From Vaccination - Page 2, updated 28 July 2014
 
 
Vaccines, BSE and vCJD
In Memory of Andy Black - WARNING, GRAPHIC PHOTOS, DON'T LOOK IF EASILY UPSET - updated 2 August 2012
 
 
Vaccination: An Ecological Disaster
Environmental Reasons Why Vaccines Aren't so Great. 2% of World HIV Cases Caused By Vaccines. NEW PAGE.
 
 
Skewed Statistics
How Studies are 'Doctored' to Make Vaccines Seem More Effective - NEW page! updated 8 August 2012
 
 
Youth Page
Under 18's Page - Know Your Vaccination Rights - Updated 25 June 2012
 
 
Take Vaccines Out of Schools Campaign!
Example letters you can use to complain about the use of vaccination in schools - updated 23 June 2012
 
 
Vaccines Didn't Save Us From Smallpox
Historical Evidence Against Vaccination and Historical Vaccine Death Cases
 
 
A Parent's Guide against Pro-Vaccine Pediatricians
NEW PAGE - Countering Pro-Vaccine Arguments, 30th April 2012
 
 
Rotavirus Vaccine
Rotavirus Vaccine - another vaccine added to the UK schedule - 22 March 2014
 
 
The Problems with Vaccinating Premature Babies
New page. Completed 2nd June 2014
 
 
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen), Ibuprofen and Vaccines
New Page - updated 13 April 2014
 
 
Vaccines and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
 
 
Ebola News
The latest scare that WHO want to frighten you with - 28 August 2014
 
 
Donate To VAN UK to Keep This Website Running!
Donate To VAN UK to Keep This Website Running!
 
 
Letters To VAN UK
About vaccination and it's affects - updated 11 April 2014
 
 
Guest Book
Comments are Moderated (Polite Messages Only)- Moderated 27 February 2014).
 
 
Contact Us
Contact Us - updated 15 August 2014
 
 

Vaccine Shedding


THE DILEMMA OF VACCINE-INDUCED DISEASE AND UNVACCINATED CHILDREN

It has long been known that vaccines can cause the diseases they were meant to immunise against.
For instance, the live oral polio vaccination can cause polio – a disease named vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), which is mentioned on the UK dept of health website, immunisation.org.uk
‘If a baby has had the oral polio vaccine, the live virus can be found in the baby's poo for up to six weeks afterwards.’
It was actually for this reason that the OPV was voted out and injectable polio vaccine re-introduced. The oral vaccine was responsible for the ONLY cases of polio in the developing world. (Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, held 20th June 1996).

According to DRAFT ACIP meeting minutes, February 2001, page 28:

‘OPV not only causes vaccine-associated paralytic polio, but if it’s use is stopped, the OPV strain can still re-emerge….to date, no developing country has used IPV only, so there is little information on it’s immunogenicity (i.e. there’s no evidence the injectable version prevents polio either)…Dr. Halsey asked if viral mutations from vaccination occur over a long period in the excretions of an immunosuppressed individual…Dr. Abramson recalled data showing that the virus can be found in people 10 years after vaccination…the fact that children are being paralysed by vaccine derived viruses, proves their virulence. Dr. Kew’s 1997 report said that vaccine derived viruses could be replicating in immunosuppressed individuals…however, vaccination cessation is not expected anytime soon.’

The MMR vaccine also contains live viruses and according to an MMR 2 manufacturer’s data sheet from Merck, Sharpe and Dohme, ‘It is not known whether measles or mumps vaccine virus is secreted in human milk. Recent studies have shown that lactating postpartum women immunised with live attenuated rubella vaccine may secrete the virus in breast milk and transmit it to breast-fed infants. In the infants with serological evidence of rubella infection, none exhibited severe disease; however, one exhibited mild clinical illness typical of acquired rubella. Caution should be exercised when M-M-R II is administered to a nursing woman.’

Pregnancy was listed as a contraindication to the vaccine and they advised not getting pregnant for 3 months after an MMR vaccine has been given. Since it has been proven that the viruses are secreted in body fluid, it is reasonable to assume that close contact with a vaccinated infant would also confer risk.

Indeed, my eldest daughter contracted measles at 15 months, after sitting next to a baby who’d just had his MMR jab that morning. She came out with the measles rash exactly 14 days after eating her lunch with him, and the incubation period for measles is a fortnight.

BCG vaccine is also live (and given to minority babies at birth) and can mutate. According to the Medical Monitor, June 1992, ‘BCG vaccine can cause disseminated TB in immunosuppressed individuals and children…local ulceration appears to be more common in babies.’

But it isn’t only live vaccines that can cause a problem. ‘Killed’ vaccines have been known to mutate and cause disease, even amongst close contacts of the recipient.
Meningitis vaccines such as HIB and Meningitis C can also spread. The medical profession are currently studying 15,000 teenagers to discover whether immunisation helps trigger the most deadly strain of meningococcus bacteria. Throat swaps are being taken from 7 centres around the country. A spokesman said
‘The study being conducted will address whether or not vaccine escape variants ..will begin to spread among the population..as a result of the immunisation programme.’ Escape variants can switch was B to C or C to B etc. (John Von Radowitz, Medical Correspondent, PA News).

How Can Parents Protect Their Unvaccinated Children?

Firstly, breast feed! Breast milk kills polio virus and meningitis and a whole host of other diseases. Carry on breast feeding your child for as long as possible (the World Health Organisation recommend a MINIMUM of 2 years).

Do not change the nappy/diaper of a friend’s vaccinated baby.

Do not allow your baby to put another baby’s soother in his mouth, or to bottle share.

Regularly give your baby vitamin C supplementation. Drops are available for very small babies, or chewable ones for toddlers. I gave my children 3,000mgs of vitamin C a day and they never had any serious illnesses or complications. Remember, you cannot overdose on vitamin C and any that the body does not need, is simply re-absorbed.

If you know a baby has just been vaccinated, or has a disease, consider giving a vitamin A supplement as children with adequate levels of this vitamin do not get serious side-effects from childhood disease. This is also good for the vaccinated child as good levels of vitamin A and C have been shown to reduce vaccine side-effects. If you choose this option, please discuss it with a health care provider to find the correct dose for your child, as too much vitamin A can be dangerous.

Alternatively, give your baby foods rich in vitamin A such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, spinach, butternut squash, turnip greens, mustard greens, and lettuce. Vitamin A is also present in free-range eggs, if you aren’t vegan. If your baby is too young for solids, eat these foods yourself and the nutrients will be passed to him via your breast milk.

Consider a homeopathic nosode (homeopathic version of vaccination). These can be given by a qualified homeopath to fill a child’s susceptibility to the disease (e.g. pertussin 30 if the child is exposed to whooping cough).

Help – My Child Has Measles!

If your child picks up measles, it helps to be informed so you know what to look for and how to treat it.

The Symptoms:

Measles begins like a cold with runny nose, sore throat and cough. Sometimes the child might get sticky eyes (conjunctivitis). There will be white spots on the inside of the mouth called Koplik’s spots.
3 to 5 days later, a rash will appear, starting behind the ears and on the face. Within a day it will spread to the body. There will be a fever and sometimes vomiting.
Within another 3 to 5 days, the rash disappears and the fever goes away. On very rare occasions, the child’s rash may bleed, they may suffer a febrile convulsion or measles encephalitis and death. This is unlikely, though, as according to Medicine Net, ‘measles has a low mortality rate in well nourished healthy children.’

Measles encephalitis can also occur in vaccinated children as Atypical Measles Syndrome (AMS), as Medicine Net describe: ‘AMS begins suddenly with high fever, headache, cough, and abdominal pain. The rash may appear 1 to 2 days later, often beginning on the limbs. Swelling (edema) of the hands and feet may occur. Pneumonia is common and may persist for 3 months or more.’

They blame incorrect vaccine storage on the fact that only vaccinated patients get AMS, or on the old single measles jab, ‘Immunization with inactivated measles virus does not prevent measles virus infection. It can, however, sensitize a person so that the expression of the disease is altered, resulting in AMS.’

When my mother got my measles shot in 1978, she was told that was effective. Now they say it isn’t. It does not inspire confidence in vaccination when they keep changing their story.

How Can My Child Become Immune To Measles?

Again, according to Medicine Net, ‘A child born to a mother who had measles receives immunity from its mother lasting most of the first year of life. One attack of measles provides lifelong immunity’ – there are other studies which show that immunity from mother’s milk lasts even longer than that. It is a strong argument against vaccination, as most mothers of this generation will have had the vaccine and therefore their ability to pass on immunity to their children is weakened. This shows that vaccination is actually destroying natural immunity rather than building it.

Treatments:

When my daughter had measles I withheld all food from her. Food feeds a virus as well as the person, and valuable energy is wasted on the digestive system when it should be going to the immune system. Fasting allows the body to rest. We usually don’t feel like eating when we are ill because it is our body’s way of telling us to fast.

I made sure she had regular fluids to avoid dehydration – starting with water and then progressing to fruit juice when she was a little better. Breast milk is also ideal. For her fever, I gave regular doses of Belladonna 6 homeopathy and tepid sponge bathing to prevent any febrile convulsion (which are caused by allowing the temperature to rise too quickly).

I didn’t give any paracetamol or another anti-pyretic because if you try to suppress symptoms you end up pushing them into the body and causing measles complications. According to Medicine Net, ‘Avoid aspirin and all aspirin products. (Aspirin today is not recommended for children or for patients with infectious diseases caused by viruses, because of the association with Reyes syndrome)’. Nearly all measles complications are either in malnourished children or healthy children whose measles was ‘medicated.’
I used calamine lotion on her spots to ease any discomfort. Her rash disappeared after 3 days and she was fully recovered in 8 days and did not get ill (even with a cold) for another year or more afterwards.






Baby Got Yellow Fever From Mother's Vaccine

A baby fell badly ill after his mother ignored advice to avoid the yellow fever vaccine while breastfeeding.

Tests show the five-week old boy contracted a vaccine strain of the virus directly through receiving milk from his mother.

The case provides the first known proof that the jab should be avoided while mothers lactate, experts in Canada have said.

Dr Susan Kuhn, who co-authored the research for Alberta Health Services, said: "Until recently, avoidance of vaccination of breastfeeding women with yellow fever vaccine had been based on theoretical grounds only."

The mother, whose nationality was not revealed, received travel advice and a vaccination for yellow fever before visiting Venezuela when the baby was 10 days old.

The infant did not receive vaccinations for the trip and they travelled together with breastfeeding continuing.

"The previously healthy five-week-old infant male presented to the hospital with a two-day history of fever and irritability," the authors wrote in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. "The day before his admission, he had been noted to have focal seizures on alternating sides."

Testing of the spinal fluid revealed evidence of recent infection with the yellow fever virus.

The travellers stayed in urban Venezuela where yellow fever is not known to be a risk, and the baby showed no sign of insect bites, had not been in contact with sick people and was not exposed to animals showing symptoms, which prompted the authors to conclude that the likely explanation was transmission through breastfeeding.

"This probable case of yellow fever virus further supports the current recommendations for avoidance of yellow fever vaccination in lactating mothers of infants under nine months of age," the authors added. "While there may be situations in which the mother will have unavoidable and significant risk of yellow fever exposure, the risk to the infant due to maternal vaccination must be weighed against the risk of wild-type virus infection."

Source: The Press Association, 7th February 2011.

Transmission of mumps virus from mumps-vaccinated individuals to close contacts

During a recent mumps epidemic in the Netherlands caused by a genotype D mumps virus strain, we investigated the potential of vaccinated people to spread mumps disease to close contacts. We compared mumps viral titers of oral fluid specimens obtained by quantitative PCR from vaccinated (n = 60) and unvaccinated (n = 111) mumps patients. We also investigated the occurrence of mumps infection among the household contacts of vaccinated mumps patients. We found that viral titers are higher for unvaccinated patients than for vaccinated patients during the 1st 3 days after onset of disease. While no symptomatic cases were reported among the household contacts (n = 164) of vaccinated mumps patients (n = 36), there were cases with serological evidence of asymptomatic infection among vaccinated household contacts (9 of 66 vaccinated siblings). For two of these siblings, the vaccinated index patient was the most probable source of infection. We conclude that, in this particular outbreak, the risk of a close contact becoming infected by vaccinated patients was small, but present.

Source: Vaccine
Volume 29, Issue 51, 28 November 2011, Pages 9551-9556.

Sibling Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Associated With Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

Although rotavirus vaccines are known to be shed in stools, transmission of vaccine-derived virus to unvaccinated contacts resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis has not been reported to our knowledge. We document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq [Merck and Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care. Results of our investigation suggest that reassortment between vaccine component strains of genotypes P7[5]G1 and P1A[8]G6 occurred during replication either in the vaccinated infant or in the older sibling, raising the possibility that this reassortment may have increased the virulence of the vaccine-derived virus. Both children remain healthy 11 months after this event and are without underlying medical conditions.

Source: Pediatrics Vol. 125 No. 2 February 1, 2010
pp. e438 -e441

Recently vaccinated children may serve as reservoirs and potential transmitters of infection.

The effects of whole-cell pertussis vaccine wane after 5 to 10 years, and infection in a vaccinated person causes nonspecific symptoms[3-7]. Vaccinated adolescents and adults may serve as reservoirs for silent infection and become potential transmitters to unprotected infants[3-11]. The whole-cell vaccine for pertussis is protective only against clinical disease, not against infection[15-17]. Therefore, even young, recently vaccinated children may serve as reservoirs and potential transmitters of infection.

Source: Medscape Today, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/414768_3

Antigenic Drift from Vaccines

A new study by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has revealed the mechanism behind the phenomenon known as antigenic drift.

Antigenic drift occurs when pressure from the body's immune system causes a virus used in a vaccine to mutate into a slightly different form that can potentially be more infectious.

The scientists, led by Ram Sasisekharan, a professor of health sciences and biological engineering at MIT, conducted the study by examining the chain of amino acids in the viral protein hemagglutinin. They identified which amino acids were most likely to mutate into forms that would improve the viruses' capability to infect new hosts.

The knowledge acquired by Sasisekharan and his team could help influenza vaccine designers develop vaccines that do not produce fitter viruses, as the evolved strains are known.

New strains of influenza emerge constantly, leaving researchers searching for which new strains should be included in the seasonal influenza vaccine, which must be reformulated every year.

The vaccines stimulate the production of antibodies that target a section of the hemagglutinin protein known as the antigenic site. When a virus encounters antibodies it can change slightly into a form that can spread more easily to those that have not been vaccinated and can bind more tightly to the surfaces of cells in the respiratory tract of flu victims, making it more infectious.

With funding from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, Sasisekharan and his team sought to find out how this phenomenon occurs.

They examined the hemagglutinin protein using an approach called network analysis, which looks at the relationship between the individual amino acids that make up the protein. The resulting model showed that those amino acids located in the protein's antigenic region that were highly linked to those in the receptor-binding region were more likely to change affinity upon mutation. Selection pressure due to vaccination could contribute to the evolution of fitter viruses by producing better-binding hemagglutinin proteins.

“The idea that hemagglutinin can only accommodate certain mutations without losing fitness is not a new one, but what this paper gives us is a way to understand how changes in distant amino acids affect receptor binding,” David Topham, a professor at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, said.

Sasisekharan said that with knowledge of which amino acids are most likely to mutate into a more infectious form, vaccine producers could create vaccines that do not provoke mutations.

“This understanding of the relationship between the antigenic site and the receptor-binding site could be added to the current methods of vaccine selection and vaccine designs to limit drift,” Sasisekharan said.

Source: Vaccine News Daily, 28th December 2011.

How Bacteria Behind Serious Childhood Disease Evolve to Evade Vaccines

Genetics has provided surprising insights into why vaccines used in both the UK and US to combat serious childhood infections can eventually fail. The study, recently published in Nature Genetics, which investigates how bacteria change their disguise to evade the vaccines, has implications for how future vaccines can be made more effective.

In spite of the success of the vaccine programmes, some pneumococcal strains managed to continue to cause disease by camouflaging themselves from the vaccine. In research funded by the Wellcome Trust, scientists at the University of Oxford and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta studied what happened after the introduction of this vaccine in the US. They used the latest genomic techniques combined with epidemiology to understand how different serotypes of the pneumococcus bacteria evolve to replace those targeted by the initial vaccine.

Source: Wellcome Trust (2012, January 29). How bacteria behind serious childhood disease evolve to evade vaccines. ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120129151005.htm

Animal Vaccine Combines to Make New Deadly Virus - Has Implications for Human Vaccines.

Recombination between herpesviruses has been seen in vitro and in vivo under experimental conditions. This has raised safety concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines in human and veterinary medicine and adds to other known concerns associated with their use, including reversion to virulence and disease arising from recurrent reactivation of lifelong chronic infection. We used high-throughput sequencing to investigate relationships between emergent field strains and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1). We show that independent recombination events between distinct attenuated vaccine strains resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that became the dominant strains responsible for widespread disease in Australian commercial poultry flocks. These findings highlight the risks of using multiple different attenuated herpesvirus vaccines, or vectors, in the same populations.

Source: Science
Vol. 337 no. 6091 p. 188  http://www.sciencemag.org/content/337/6091/188

Mutated Polio-Like Illness in 5 Californian Children

California researchers have reported an unexplained polio-like illness that struck five children in the state and left them with poor limb function, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) reported yesterday.

Two of the children tested positive for enterovirus 68 (EV-68), a rare virus that has sometimes been linked to polio-like symptoms, but no cause was found in the other three children, the AAN said in a press release.

The cases are described in a report that will be presented at the AAN's annual meeting, scheduled Apr 26 to May 3 in Philadelphia.

"In the past decade, newly identified strains of enterovirus have been linked to polio-like outbreaks among children in Asia and Australia. These five new cases highlight the possibility of an emerging infectious polio-like syndrome in California," said Keith Van Haren, MD, lead author of the case report, in the release.

Van Haren said he and his colleagues noticed several of these cases at their medical centers and decided to look for similar cases statewide. They reviewed all polio-like cases among children who had samples referred to California's Neurologic and Surveillance Testing program from August 2012 to July 2013.

Cases were included in the study if the children had paralysis in one or more limbs with abnormal MRI scans of the spinal cord that explained the paralysis. They excluded children who met criteria for Guillain-Barre syndrome and botulism, which can cause similar symptoms.

The five children experienced paralysis of one or more arms or legs that began suddenly and reached peak severity within 2 days of onset. Three of the children had a respiratory illness before the symptoms began. All of the children had been previously vaccinated against poliovirus.

Despite treatment, the children's symptoms did not improve, and they still had poor limb function after 6 months, the AAN said. Two of them tested positive for EV-68.

"Our findings have important implications for disease surveillance, testing and treatment," said Van Haren. "We would like to stress that this syndrome appears to be very, very rare. Any time a parent sees symptoms of paralysis in a child, the child should be seen by a doctor right away."

Acute flaccid paralysis and enteroviruses

The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) also took note of polio-like illnesses in the state last year, according to a health advisory that was issued by San Joaquin County Public Health Services in July 2013. The notice said the CDPH had been following several unexplained cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) since August 2012.

"In some instances, there have been long-term disabilities ranging from complete paralysis of one limb to complete paralysis of all four limbs," the advisory said. "No single etiology has been found in these cases." The notice encouraged healthcare providers to report such cases to the CDPH.

Non-polio enteroviruses are very common and cause an estimated 10 million to 15 million infections per year in the United States, mostly in children and teens, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Most people who become infected don't get sick or have only a mild respiratory illness, but the viruses can cause severe complications such as myocarditis, encephalitis, or paralysis in rare cases.

In 2011 the CDC reported on six clusters of respiratory illnesses caused by EV-68 in the preceding 3 years, including three in the United States. Most of the cases were mild, but three deaths were reported in the Philippines and Japan.

See also:

Feb 23 AAN press release

Jul 25, 2013, San Joaquin County health advisory on AFP cases

Sep 29, 2011, CIDRAP News item on EV-68 case clusters

Sep 30, 2011, CDC report on EV-68 case clusters

CDC overview of non-polio enteroviruses

Source: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2014/02/puzzling-polio-illness-reported-5-california-children

25 Children with 'Polio-Like Illness' - Non-Vaccine Strain Polio Hitting US Kids

A mysterious illness doctors are comparing to polio has struck down up to 25 children in California over the past year, leaving them with paralyzed limbs and a bad prognosis.

The children, aged between two and 16, all suffered paralysis of the arms or legs and some experienced respiratory difficulties.

'What's we're seeing now is bad. The best case scenario is complete loss of one limb, the worst is all four limbs, with respiratory insufficiency as well. It's like the old polio,' Keith Van Haren, a pediatric neurologist at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital in Palo Alto, California, told USA Today.

While studying five of the sick children to present at a medical conference, neurologists discovered that two of them tested positive for enterovirus 68, a rare virus that can cause polio-like symptoms.

FDA Say Pertussis Vaccine Doesn't Prevent Spread of Infection and Vaccinated can Pass it to Unvaccinated

A new study is helping to provide a better understanding of vaccines for whooping cough, the common name for the disease pertussis. Based on an animal model, the study conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and published November 25, 2013, in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that acellular pertussis vaccines licensed by the FDA are effective in preventing the disease among those vaccinated, but suggests that they may not prevent infection from the bacteria that causes whooping cough in those vaccinated or its spread to other people, including those who may not be vaccinated.
 
Whooping cough rates in the United States have been increasing since the 1980s and reached a 50-year high in 2012. Whooping cough is a contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis bacteria. Initial symptoms include runny nose, sneezing, and a mild cough, which may seem like a typical cold. Usually, the cough slowly becomes more severe, and eventually the patient may experience bouts of rapid, violent coughing followed by the “whooping” sound that gives the disease its common name, when trying to take a breath. Whooping cough can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening complications, permanent disability, and even death, especially in infants and young children.
 
There are two types of pertussis vaccines, whole-cell and acellular. Whole-cell pertussis vaccines contain a whole-cell preparation, which means they contain killed, but complete, B. pertussis bacteria. The acellular pertussis vaccine is more purified and uses only selected portions of the pertussis bacteria to stimulate an immune response in an individual. In response to concerns about the side effects of the whole cell pertussis vaccine, acellular vaccines were developed and replaced the use of whole-cell pertussis vaccines in the U.S. and other countries in the 1990s; however, whole-cell pertussis vaccines are still used in many other countries.
 
“This study is critically important to understanding some of the reasons for the rising rates of pertussis and informing potential strategies to address this public health concern,” said Karen Midthun, M.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where the study was conducted. “This research is a valuable contribution and brings us one step closer to understanding the problem. We are optimistic that more research on pertussis will lead to the identification of new and improved methods for preventing the disease.”
 
While the reasons for the increase in cases of whooping cough are not fully understood, multiple factors are likely involved, including diminished immunity from childhood pertussis vaccines, improved diagnostic testing, and increased reporting. With its own funds plus support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the FDA conducted the study to explore the possibility that acellular pertussis vaccines, while protecting against disease, might not prevent infection.
 
“There were 48,000 cases reported last year despite high rates of vaccination,” said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “This resurgence suggests a need for research into the causes behind the increase in infections and improved ways to prevent the disease from spreading.”
 
The FDA conducted the study in baboons, an animal model that closely reproduces the way whooping cough affects people. The scientists vaccinated two groups of baboons – one group with a whole-cell pertussis vaccine and the other group with an acellular pertussis vaccine currently used in the U. S. The animals were vaccinated at ages two, four, and six months, simulating the infant immunization schedule. The results of the FDA study found that both types of vaccines generated robust antibody responses in the animals, and none of the vaccinated animals developed outward signs of pertussis disease after being exposed to B. pertussis. However, there were differences in other aspects of the immune response. Animals that received an acellular pertussis vaccine had the bacteria in their airways for up to six weeks and were able to spread the infection to unvaccinated animals. In contrast, animals that received whole-cell vaccine cleared the bacteria within three weeks.
 
This research suggests that although individuals immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine may be protected from disease, they may still become infected with the bacteria without always getting sick and are able to spread infection to others, including young infants who are susceptible to pertussis disease.

Source: FDA News Release, 27th November 2013 - http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm376937.htm

Rash in a 15 Month old Girl

A report in the BMJ describes the case of a 15 month old who was given MMR vaccine and then developed symptoms of measles. They concluded that it was not a vaccine reaction and that she had already been incubating measles prior to her vaccination. They based this argument on the fact that it developed so soon after the vaccination but didn't take into account that when you are injecting viruses they go by a completely different route and bypass several defences, theoretically allowing the virus to take hold faster.

At no point did they consider that their MMR vaccine may have given measles to the little girl.

Paper here: http://211.144.68.84:9998/91keshi/Public/File/38/345-7883/pdf/bmj.e6973.full.pdf

Spotlight on measles 2010: Excretion of vaccine strain measles virus in urine and pharyngeal secretions of a child with vaccine associated febrile rash illness, Croatia, March 2010

We describe excretion of measles vaccine strain
Schwarz in a child who developed a febrile rash ill
-ness eight days after primary immunisation against
measles, mumps and rubella. Throat swabs and urine
specimens were collected on the fifth and sixth day of
illness, respectively. Genotyping demonstrated mea
-sles vaccine strain Schwarz (genotype A). If measles
and rubella were not under enhanced surveillance in
Croatia, the case would have been either misreported
as rubella or not recognised at all.

Full paper describing child excreting measles virus in urine and saliva after vaccination: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V15N35/art19652.pdf

Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post- immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, October 2013

We describe a case of vaccine-associated measles in a
two-year-old patient from British Columbia, Canada, in
October 2013, who received her first dose of measles-
containing vaccine 37 days prior to onset of prodromal
symptoms. Identification of this delayed vaccine-
associated case occurred in the context of an outbreak investigation of a measles cluster.

In this report we describe a case of measles-mumps-
rubella (MMR) vaccine-associated measles illness that
was positive by both PCR and IgM, five weeks after
administration of the MMR vaccine. Based on our litera
-ture review, we believe this is the first such case report
which has implications for both public health follow-up
of measles cases and vaccine safety surveillance.

Source:
Murti M, Krajden M, Petric M, Hiebert J, Hemming F, Hefford B, Bigham M, Van Buynder P. Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post-immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, October 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(49):pii=20649. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20649

Global Population Structure and Evolution of Bordetella pertussis and Their Relationship with Vaccination

Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines (ACVs), waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptation is suggested by antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and by the emergence of strains with increased pertussis toxin production.

Source: doi: 10.1128/mBio.01074-14 mBio vol. 5 no. 2 e01074-14

This means that pertussis vaccination has caused the pertussis bacteria to mutate and develop and the new whooping cough is now more lethal than the natural one because the mutated pertussis generates more toxins.

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